The resource-intensiveness of the proof of work mechanism has triggered the adoption of the proof of stage mechanism, which is an alternative mechanism adopted by Ethereum.
What Is Proof Of Stake (PoS)?
Proof of stake works in converse to the proof of work, which largely uses computers to decide who accesses the next block of data in the blockchain. For the proof of stake, participants can use coins to access the right to get the blockchain updated while earning more coins.
A merit of this stake is its usefulness as a security deposit that ensures validators are unable to input incorrect data into the blockchain. This is crucial to forestalling the loss of a part of the stake to incorrect data. This is the rationale behind having lower transaction amounts routed to a particular node in comparison to the value of the security deposit.
How Does Proof Of Stake (PoS) Work?
1. Potential participants supposedly deposit coins in their node (computer). Once this is achieved, the computer is deemed ready for the competition.
2. Every eligible competes with one another in a bid to add a new block of the transaction to the blockchain. It is important to note that coins are mined when proof of work mechanism is used but coins are forged in the proof of stake.
3. The blockchain network randomly chooses the computer that would forge the record. The random choice was designed by crypto developers due to some factors. For example, computing nodes that have been in the system for quite some time are opportunities to forge the next block. This idea was conceived to ensure there is level ground for everyone participating in the forging process.
4. The node used for forging is always rewarded with some coins after the block has been mined. However, respective cryptocurrencies that use this mechanism have their way of calculating and distributing the rewards.
Benefits Of Proof Of Stake (PoS)
1. The proof of stake is conservative with resources compared to the proof of work mechanism that is wasteful. The mechanism uses existing coins to affirm transaction accuracy. Also, the proof of stake system is highly decentralized such that validators are chosen randomly.
2. Proof of stake mechanism can be operated upon with any average computer, hence sophisticated mining equipment is not a criterion. It is to this simplicity that a plethora of validators opt for the proof of stake mechanism while the system becomes robust.
Problems Associated With Proof Of Stake (PoS)
1. The algorithms for proof of stake are designed in such a way that the highest investors have the highest likelihood to get their transaction validated. This means the system favors the rich who can afford more advanced computing equipment. So the rich becomes richer with high chances to become the next validator.
2. In the proof of stake, an individual or a group of investors have the majority control of the system if they invest 51% of the stake in the nodes. This leaves them with the volition to validate fraudulent transactions but the notion appears impractical, considering the billion-dollar worth of most cryptocurrencies.
The proof of stake mechanism has a more environmentally friendly system in validating transactions. The mechanism is also effective in upholding the integrity of the blockchain system.